Responsible, Engaged, and Loving (REAL) Fathers is a community-based mentorship program that works with young fathers in two regions of Uganda to promote skills and behaviors that reduce IPV and violent discipline of children and improve family planning use.
Masculinité, Famille et Foi (MFF) works with faith leaders and gender champions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to increase the use of modern family planning methods and reduce IPV among newly married couples and first-time parents.
Growing Up GREAT! (GUG!) works with very young adolescents in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, along with their parents, caregivers, teachers, and health providers, to improve their reproductive health and well-being; increase gender-equitable behaviors in parenting, including mitigating violent discipline of children; increase health services access; and reduce bullying among youth.Learn More
Passages conducted an exploration of social norms to identify and prioritize norms for each of the interventions. Across Passages interventions, the norms listed below emerged as key to violence and violence prevention.
It’s important for men and women to take care of their families.
Men and women—and boys and girls—have different roles and responsibilities, such as chores, within households.
In some circumstances, violence against women and children is considered justifiable or necessary.
Engaging in violence is part of boyhood and manhood.
Violence within the family is a private matter.
For more norms—and behaviors and attitudes—related to IPV and violent discipline of children, see the Social Norms Learning Collaborative’s Social Norms Atlas.
The Passages interventions’ program strategies are intentionally designed to lead to norms-shifting in communities as part of behavior change. Each of the interventions sought to shift norms as part of a multi-level, multi-component social and behavior change approach that also addressed other factors. The following strategies were integral to shifting social norms across interventions.
For more information, the Passages Theory of Change lays out how norms-shifting approaches are part of our pathway to change.
Evaluation results from REAL Fathers; Growing Up GREAT!; and Masculinité, Famille et Foi point to reductions in violent behaviors and changes in the broader normative environment, some of which could help reduce future violence.
Attitudes and justifications of IPV shifted in MFF intervention groups.
MFF endline data suggest that perceived approval of IPV among important reference groups decreased in both groups.
REAL Fathers were around three times as likely not to engage in IPV as control fathers one year after the intervention.
REAL Fathers reported drinking less alcohol after the intervention.
REAL Fathers reported better communication and cooperation in their marriage.
MFF endline results revealed that men in intervention groups were less likely to report perpetrating emotional violence compared to men in comparison groups.
REAL Fathers were around three times as likely not to perpetrate violent discipline of children as control fathers one year after the intervention.
REAL Fathers were more likely than control fathers to use positive parenting practices one year after the intervention.
Both fathers and mothers reported using new strategies to discipline their children after participation in the REAL program.
Parents and guardians involved in GUG! reported a reduction in verbal violence toward their very young adolescents to enforce behavior and monitor their children's whereabouts.
By endline, subgroups of the GUG! intervention group of very young adolescents (VYAs) showed significant reductions in teasing and psychological abuse compared to the control group.
By endline, segments of the GUG! VYA intervention group showed a significant reduction in violence against their peers compared to the control group.